all threads All Threads ›› Elephants communicate over miles with low range infrasounds ›› new reply Post Reply
Rats in the walls

crush, kill, destr
1,170 Posts
34/M/NY

offline   (1)
August 4 2012 6:42 PM   QuickQuote Quote  





Elephant Communication, Mechanisms Behind Calls Unraveled

August 3, 2012

African elephants are known as some of the greatest communicators in the animal kingdom, they can converse with “extremely low-pitched vocalizations, known as infrasounds, over a distance of miles.”

The “infrasounds” they make occupy a very low frequency range. At fewer than 20 Hertz, or cycles, per second, it’s generally below the threshold of human hearing.

Now, new research has found that “elephants rely on the same mechanism that produces speech in humans (and the vocalizations of many other mammals) to hit those extremely low notes.”

“Christian Herbst from the University of Vienna, along with colleagues from Germany, Austria and the United States, used the larynx of a recently deceased elephant to recreate some elephant infrasounds in a laboratory.”

“These vocalizations are called infrasounds because their fundamental frequency is below the range of human hearing,” explained Herbst during a phone interview. “We only hear the harmonics of such sounds, or multiples of that fundamental frequency. If an elephant’s vocal folds were to clap together at 10 Hertz, for example, we would perceive some energy in that sound at 20, 30, 40 Hertz and so on. But these higher overtones are usually weaker in amplitude.”

“Until now, researchers have wondered whether these low, rumbling elephant infrasounds were created by intermittent muscle contractions, as a cat’s purr is, or by flow-induced vocal fold vibrations, fueled by air from the lungs, as is a human’s voice. But, the natural death of an elephant at a zoo in Berlin gave Herbst and his colleagues a somewhat serendipitous chance to study the mechanism firsthand.”

“The researchers removed the elephant’s larynx and froze it within a few hours of the animal’s death. They then took it over to the larynx laboratory in the Department of Cognitive Biology at the University of Vienna, where Tecumseh Fitch, a senior author of the Science paper, studied it in depth.”






“Herbst and the other researchers imitated the elephant’s lungs by blowing controlled streams of warm, humid air through the excised larynx while adjusting the elephant vocal folds into a phonatory, or vocal-ready, position. In this way, the scientists were able to coax the vocal folds into a periodic, low-frequency vibration that matched an elephant’s infrasound in every detail.”

“The fact that they were able to duplicate the elephant’s infrasounds in a laboratory demonstrates that the animals rely on a myoelastic-aerodynamic, or ‘flow-driven,’ mode of speech to communicate in the wild. The elephant’s brain would have been required to recurrently tense and relax the vocal muscles if the other mechanism, which produces a cat’s purr, was involved, they say.”

“This flow-induced mechanism demonstrated by the researchers is likely to be employed by a wide range of mammals. From echolocating bats with their incredibly high vocalizations to African elephants and their extremely low-pitched infrasounds, this mode of voice production seems to span four to five orders of magnitude across a wide range of body sizes and sonic frequencies.”

“The researchers also saw some interesting ‘nonlinear phenomena’ in the way the elephant vocal folds vibrated. These mostly irregular patterns of vibration occur when babies cry or heavy metal singers scream and the physical mechanism that elephants use is again identical to that seen in humans, they say.”

“If I scream, it’s no longer a periodic vibration,” said Herbst. “It becomes chaotic and you can hear a certain degree of roughness. This can also be observed in young elephants, in situations of high excitement.”

“Herbst says that the findings were only made possible by a collaborative effort between voice scientists and biologists, and that voice science is an essential aspect of our social and economic lives.”

The research was just published in the August 3rd issue of the journal Science.


click here for link
DennisQ
who-bah-stank
24,541 Posts
33/M/NY


offline  mobile reply   (2)
August 4 2012 6:44 PM   QuickQuote Quote  
Best animals.
Hauston
WHISLT!!
6,133 Posts
36/M/PA


offline  mobile reply   (19)
August 4 2012 6:47 PM   QuickQuote Quote  
Thats amazing
Billy Crystals
The shy retirer
14,553 Posts
33/M/WI


offline   (2)
August 4 2012 6:55 PM   QuickQuote Quote  
Originally posted by: DennisQ

Best animals.

crunkmoose
Fuck Nazis.
24,526 Posts
62/M/MA


offline   (9)
August 4 2012 10:18 PM   QuickQuote Quote  
Hmm.. not the best animals... but really fucking awesome ones.
crunkmoose
Fuck Nazis.
24,526 Posts
62/M/MA


offline   (9)
August 4 2012 10:20 PM   QuickQuote Quote  
Best?

Platypii.

duck bill. monotremes. lay eggs. use magnetic rangefinding. venomous.
Billy Crystals
The shy retirer
14,553 Posts
33/M/WI


offline   (2)
August 4 2012 10:24 PM   QuickQuote Quote  
And than an elephant steps on it.
crunkmoose
Fuck Nazis.
24,526 Posts
62/M/MA


offline   (9)
August 4 2012 11:20 PM   QuickQuote Quote  
Originally posted by: Billy Crystals

And than an elephant steps on it.



Unless all its feet have been turned into umbrella stands.
all threads All Threads ›› Elephants communicate over miles with low range in... ›› new reply Post Reply

Quick Reply - RE: Elephants communicate over miles with low range infrasounds

Connect with Facebook to comment: Login w/FB

or Sign up free! - or login:







Subject


wrap selection with italics
wrap selection with bold
insert less than symbol
insert greater than symbol


google image Insert Google Images
Share a Band



Your ad here?